Bacterial vaccines contain killed or attenuated bacteria that activate the immune system. Bacterial Unit of BPD heads the following subunits.

Tetanus Toxoid Production Laboratory

Tetanus is a highly fatal serious disease of nervous system caused by a toxin producing & spore-forming bacterium known as Clostridium tetani. The disease causes unvolunteered muscle contraction particularly of jaw and neck muscle to cause lockjaw, also the other name of this disease, making it impossible for patient to open mouth and swallow.

Severe complications of tetanus could be life threatening, mostly due to patients not being able to breathe as pharynx muscles are tightly contracted. Tetanus has no cure and treatment focuses on managing symptoms and complications until effects of tetanus toxin are resolved.

For prevention of the disease in the country, Pakistan established Tetanus Toxoid Production Lab on 28th July, 1992 as an integral part of the Biological production division of NIH, Pakistan. This facility was established with technical co-operation of US-Aid. Currently TTPL manufactures Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed vaccine which is used for age groups of more than 14 years individuals and supplied to EPI, Pakistan Armed Forces, General Hospitals/dispensaries and individual patients.

Production of approximately 5millions doses of TT vaccine is achieved. Furthermore, TTPL has planned production of Tetanus-diphtheria (Td) combined vaccine in near future and enhancement in the number of doses of vaccine to cope the country’s demand of vaccine, indigenously.

TCVPL (Typhoid Cholera)

Typhoid fever can be a life-threatening disease. Symptoms of infection include persistent high fever, weakness, stomach pain, diarrhea or constipation, cough and loss of appetite. 30% of people who do not get treatment die from complications of Typhoid fever. There are fever antibiotic treatment options as resistant Typhoid bacteria has become more common in many parts of the world. This is a vaccine preventable disease so two types of vaccines i.e. killed and attenuated. Vaccines are being used worldwide.

In Pakistan Typhoid Cholera Vaccine production lab, BPD, NIH is manufacturing this vaccine. This vaccine is an inactive bacterial vaccine. Typhoid vaccine manufactured at TCVPL, NIH is a suspension of inactive salmonella typhi, containing not less than 1000 million bacteria of S. Typhi Ty-2strain and 500 million each of Salmonella typhi A&B strain per human dose of 1ml. Preserved by 0.5% Phenol.The strain used has the full component of OH and VI antigens. The organisms are inactive by heating at 56°C for one hour and by addition of Phenol1%. In the near future the facility of Typhoid vaccine production will be upgraded.

Typhoid Cholera

Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholera bacteria. People can get sick when they swallow food or water contaminated with cholera bacteria. The infection is often mild or without symptoms but can sometimes be severe and life threatening.

Role of NIH, Pakistan

In Pakistan, TCVPL unit of BPD, NIH is manufacturing Typhoid Cholera mix vaccine.1ml contain 400 million Vibrio cholerae (Inaba& Ogawa strains), 1000 million, Salmonella typhi and 5ml phenol contain as preservative.

Duration of Immunity TC and TAB

Duration of immunity is two years. In case of travels or continuation of exposure a booster dose of 1.0ml is required after every two years